Normal measurements of aortic valve protheses

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Normal Doppler echocardiographic values of aortic valve prosthesis. Adapted from Perrino et al. [1]

Normal Doppler echocardiographic values of aortic valve prosthesis
Valve Size n Peak gradient
(mm Hg)
Mean gradient
(mm Hg)
Peak velocity
(m/s)
Effective orifice area
(cm2)
ATS open pivot AP ATS open pivot (bileaflet) 16 6 47.7 ± 12 27 ± 7.3 3.44 ± 0.47 0.61 ± 0.09
19 9 47 ± 12.6 26.2 ± 7.9 3.41 ± 0.43 0.96 ± 0.18
21 15 25.5 ± 6.1 14.4 ± 3.5 2.4 ± 0.39 1.58 ± 0.37
23 8 19 ± 7 12 ± 4   1.8 ± 0.2
25 12 17 ± 8 11 ± 4   2.2 ± 0.4
27 10 14 ± 4 9 ± 2   2.5 ± 0.3
29 5 11 ± 3 8 ± 2   3.1 ± 0.3
Biocor stentless (stentless bioprosthesis) 21 45 35.97 ± 4.06 18 ± 4    
23 115 29.15 ± 8.28 18.64 ± 7.14 3 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.5
25 100 28.65 ± 6.6 17.72 ± 6.99 2.8 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.38
27 55 25.87 ± 2.81 18 ± 2.8 2.7 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.46
≥29 16 24 ± 2      
Biocor extended stentless (stentless bioprosthesis) 19–21 12 17.5 ± 5.8 9.7 ± 3.5   1.3 ± 0.4
23 18 14.8 ± 5.9 8.1 ± 3.1   1.6 ± 0.3
25 20 14.2 ± 3.5 7.7 ± 1.9   1.8 ± 0.3
Bioflo pericardial (stented bioprosthesis) 19 16 37.25 ± 8.65 24.15 ± 5.1   0.77 ± 0.11
21 9 28.7 ± 6.2 18.7 ± 5.5   1.1 ± 0.1
23 4 20.7 ± 4 125 ± 3   1.3 ± 0.09
Björk-Shiley monostrut (tilting disk) 19 37 46.0 26.67 ± 7.87 3.3 ± 0.6 0.94 ± 0.19
21 161 32.41 ± 9.73 18.64 ± 6.09 2.9 ± 0.4  
23 153 26.52 ± 9.67 14.5 ± 6.2 2.7 ± 0.5  
25 89 22.33 ± 7 13.3 ± 4.96 2.5 ± 0.4  
27 61 18.31 ± 8 10.41 ± 4.38 2.1 ± 0.4  
29 9 12 ± 8 7.67 ± 4.36 1.9 ± 0.2  
Björk-Shiley spherical (tilting disk) or not specified 17 1     4.1  
19 2 27.0 21.8 ± 3.4 3.8 1.1
21 18 38.94 ± 11.93 17.34 ± 6.86 2.92 ± 0.88 1.1 ± 0.25
23 41 33.86 ± 11 11.5 ± 4.55 2.42 ± 0.4 1.22 ± 0.23
25 39 20.39 ± 7.07 10.67 ± 4.31 2.06 ± 0.28 1.8 ± 0.32
27 23 19.44 ± 7.99   1.77 ± 0.12 2.6
29 5 21.1 ± 7.1   1.87 ± 0.18 2.52 ± 0.69
31 2     2.1 ± 0.14  
Carbomedics (bileaflet) 17 7 33.4 ± 13.2 20.1 ± 7.1   1.02 ± 0.2
19 63 33.3 ± 11.19 11.61 ± 5.08 3.09 ± 0.38 1.25 ± 0.36
21 111 26.31 ± 10.25 12.68 ± 4.29 2.61 ± 0.51 1.42 ± 0.36
23 120 24.61 ± 6.93 11.33 ± 3.8 2.42 ± 0.37 1.69 ± 0.29
25 103 20.25 ± 8.69 9.34 ± 4.65 2.25 ± 0.34 2.04 ± 0.37
27 57 19.05 ± 7.04 8.41 ± 2.83 2.18 ± 0.36 2.55 ± 0.34
29 6 12.53 ± 4.69 5.8 ± 3.2 1.93 ± 0.25 2.63 ± 0.38
Carbomedics reduced (bileaflet) 19 10 43.4 ± 1.8 24.4 ± 1.2   1.22 ± 0.08
Carbomedics supraannular top hat (bileaflet) 19 4 29.04 ± 10.1 19.5 ± 2.12 1.8 1 ± 0.18
21 30 29.61 ± 8.93 16.59 ± 5.79 2.62 ± 0.35 1.18 ± 0.33
23 30 24.38 ± 7.53 13.29 ± 3.73 2.36 ± 0.55 1.37 ± 0.37
25 1 22.0 11.0 2.4  
Carpentier-Edwards (stented bioprosthesis) 19 56 43.48 ± 12.72 25.6 ± 8.02   0.85 ± 0.17
21 73 27.73 ± 7.6 17.25 ± 6.24 2.37 ± 0.54 1.48 ± 0.3
23 100 28.93 ± 7.49 15.92 ± 6.43 2.76 ± 0.4 1.69 ± 0.45
25 85 23.95 ± 7.05 12.76 ± 4.43 2.38 ± 0.47 1.94 ± 0.45
27 50 22.14 ± 8.24 12.33 ± 5.59 2.31 ± 0.39 2.25 ± 0.55
29 24 22.0 9.92 ± 2.9 2.44 ± 0.43 2.84 ± 0.51
31 4     2.41 ± 0.13  
Carpentier-Edwards pericardial (stented prosthesis) 19 14 32.13 ± 3.35 24.19 ± 8.6 2.83 ± 0.14 1.21 ± 0.31
21 34 25.69 ± 9.9 20.3 ± 9.08 2.59 ± 0.42 1.47 ± 0.36
23 20 21.72 ± 8.57 13.01 ± 5.27 2.29 ± 0.45 1.75 ± 0.28
25 5 16.46 ± 5.41 9.04 ± 2.27 2.02 ± 0.31  
27 1 19.2 5.6 1.6  
29 1 17.6 11.6 2.1  
Carpentier-Edwards supraannular AV (stented bioprosthesis) 19 15 34.1 ± 2.7   1.1 ± 0.09  
21 8 25 ± 8 14 ± 5   1.06 ± 0.16
CryoLife O'Brien stentless (stentless prothesis) 19 47   12 ± 4.8   1.25 ± 0.1
21 163   10.33 ± 2   1.57 ± 0.6
23 40   8.5   2.2
25 40   7.9   2.3
27 39   7.4   2.7
Duromedics (Tekna; bileaflet) 19 1     3.6  
21 3 19.08 ± 16 8.98 ± 5   1.3
23 12 19.87 ± 7 7 ± 2 2.64 ± 0.27  
25 18 21 ± 9 5 ± 2 2.34 ± 0.38  
27 15 22.5 ± 12 6 ± 3 1.88 ± 0.6  
29 1 13.0 3.4 2.1  
Edwards Prima stentless (stentless bioprosthesis) 19 7 30.9 ± 11.7 15.4 ± 7.4   1 ± 0.3
21 30 31.22 ± 17.35 16.36 ± 11.36   1.25 ± 0.29
23 62 23.39 ± 10.17 11.52 ± 5.26 2.8 ± 0.4 1.49 ± 0.46
25 97 19.74 ± 10.36 10.77 ± 9.32 2.7 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.55
27 46 15.9 ± 7.3 7.1 ± 3.7   2 ± 0.6
29 11 11.21 ± 8.6 5.03 ± 4.53   2.49 ± 0.52
Hancock I (stented bioprosthesis) 21 1     3.5  
23 14 19.09 ± 4.35 12.36 ± 3.82 2.94 ± 0.24  
25 26 17.61 ± 3.13 11 ± 2.85 2.36 ± 0.37  
27 20 18.11 ± 6.92 10 ± 3.46 2.4 ± 0.36  
29 2     2.23 ± 0.04  
31 1     2.0  
Hancock II (stented bioprosthesis) 21 39 20 ± 4 14.8 ± 4.1   1.23 ± 0.27
23 119 24.72 ± 5.73 16.64 ± 6.91   1.39 ± 0.23
25 114 20 ± 2 10.7 ± 3   1.47 ± 0.19
27 113 14 ± 3     1.55 ± 0.18
29 35 15 ± 3     1.6 ± 0.15
Ionescu-Shiley (stented bioprosthesis) 17 11 42.0 21.1 ± 3.21   0.86 ± 0.1
19 63 23.17 ± 6.58 20.44 ± 8.47 2.63 ± 0.32 1.15 ± 0.18
21 11 27.63 ± 8.34 15.1 ± 1.56 2.75 ± 0.25  
23 5 18.09 ± 6.49 9.9 ± 2.85 2.1 0.38  
25 1 18.0      
27 3 14.75 ± 2.17 8.97 ± 0.57 1.92 ± 0.14  
29 1 16.0 7.3 2.0  
Jyros bileaflet (bileaflet) 22 4 17.3 10.8   1.5
24 7 18.6 11.4   1.5
26 8 14.4 8.4   1.7
28 3 10.0 5.7   1.9
30 1 8.0 6.0   1.6
Lillehei-Kaster (tilting disk) 14 1     2.7  
16 2     3.43 ± 0.39  
18 2     2.85 ± 0.21  
20 1     1.7  
Medtronic Freestyle stentless (stentless bioprosthesis) 19 11   13.0    
21 85   7.99 ± 2.6   1.6 ± 0.32
23 141   7.24 ± 2.5   1.9 ± 0.5
25 164   5.35 ± 1.5   2.03 ± 0.41
27 105   4.72 ± 1.6   2.5 ± 0.47
Medtronic-Hall (tilting disk) 20 24 34.37 ± 13.06 17.08 ± 5.28 2.9 ± 0.4 1.21 ± 0.45
21 30 26.86 ± 10.54 14.1 ± 5.93 2.42 ± 0.36 1.08 ± 0.17
23 27 26.85 ± 8.85 13.5 ± 4.79 2.43 ± 0.59 1.36 ± 0.39
25 17 17.13 ± 7.04 9.53 ± 4.26 2.29 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.47
27 8 18.66 ± 9.71 8.66 ± 5.56 2.07 ± 0.53 1.9 ± 0.16
29 1     1.6  
Medtronic intact (stented bioprosthesis) 19 16 39.43 ± 15.4 23.71 ± 9.3 2.5  
21 55 33.9 ± 12.69 18.74 ± 8.03 2.73 ± 0.44 1.55 ± 0.39
23 110 31.27 ± 9.62 18.88 ± 6.17 2.74 ± 0.37 1.64 ± 0.37
25 41 27.34 ± 10.59 16.4 ± 6.05 2.6 ± 0.44 1.85 ± 0.25
27 16 25.27 ± 7.58 15 ± 3.94 2.51 ± 0.38 2.2 ± 0.17
29 5 31.0 15.6 ± 2.1 2.8 2.38 ± 0.54
Medtronic Mosaic, porcine (stented bioprosthesis) 21 51   12.43 ± 7.3   1.6 ± 0.7
23 121   12.47 ± 7.4   2.1 ± 0.8
25 71   10.08 ± 5.1   2.1 ± 1.6
27 30   9.0    
29 6   9.0    
Mitroflow (stented bioprosthesis) 19 4 18.7 ± 5.1 10.3 ± 3   1.13 ± 0.17
21 7 20.2 15.4 2.3  
23 5 14.04 ± 4.91 7.56 ± 3.38 1.85 ± 0.34  
25 2 17 ± 11.31 10.8 ± 6.51 2 ± 0.71  
27 3 13 ± 3 6.57 ± 1.7 1.8 ± 0.2  
O'Brien-Angell stentless (annular position; stentless bioprosthesis) 23     14.5 ± 7.77   1.15 ± 0.07
25 50   19 ± 12.72   1.12 ± 0.25
27     18 ± 12.72   1.55 ± 0.21
29     12 ± 7.07   2.05 ± 1.2
O'Brien-Angell stentless (supraannular position; stentless bioprosthesis) 23     9 ± 1.4   1.58 ± 0.58
25 50   7.5 ± 0.7   2.37 ± 0.18
27     8.5 ± 0.7   2.85 ± 0.87
29     7 ± 1.4   2.7 ± 0.42
Omnicarbon (tilting disk) 21 71 36.79 ± 12.59 19.4 ± 5.46 2.93 ± 0.47 1.25 ± 0.43
23 83 29.33 ± 9.67 17.98 ± 6.06 2.66 ± 0.44 1.49 ± 0.34
25 81 24.29 ± 7.71 13.51 ± 3.85 2.32 ± 0.38 1.94 ± 0.52
27 40 19.63 ± 4.34 12.06 ± 2.98 2.08 ± 0.35 2.11 ± 0.46
29 5 17.12 ± 1.53 10 ± 1.53 1.9 ± 0.06 2.27 ± 0.23
Omniscience (tilting disk) 19 2 47.5 ± 3.5 28 ± 1.4   0.81 ± 0.01
21 5 50.8 ± 2.8 28.2 ± 2.17   0.87 ± 0.13
23 8 39.8 ± 8.7 20.1 ± 5.1   0.98 ± 0.07
On-X (bileaflet) 19 6 21.3 ± 10.8 11.8 ± 3.4   1.5 ± 0.2
21 11 16.4 ± 5.9 9.9 ± 3.6   1.7 ± 0.4
23 23 15.9 ± 6.4 8.5 ± 3.3   2 ± 0.6
25 12 16.5 ± 10.2 9 ± 5.3   2.4 ± 0.8
27–29 8 11.4 ± 4.6 5.6 ± 2.7   3.2 ± 0.6
Sorin Allcarbon (tilting disk) 19 7 44 ± 7 29 ± 8 3.3 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.1
21 25 36.52 ± 9.61 21.07 ± 6.72 2.93 + 0.2 1.08 ± 0.19
23 37 34.97 ± 10.97 18.72 ± 6.49 2.9 ± 0.41 1.31 ± 0.2
25 23 22 ± 4.68 13.85 ± 3.97 2.37 ± 0.23 1.96 ± 0.71
27 13 16.3 ± 3.3 10.15 ± 3.76 2 ± 0.25 2.51 ± 0.57
29 4 13 ± 4 8 ± 2 1.8 ± 0.3 4.1 ± 0.7
Sorin Bicarbon (bileaflet) 19 19 29.53 ± 4.46 16.35 ± 1.99 2.5 ± 0.1 1.36 ± 0.13
21 70 24.52 ± 7.1 12.54 ± 3.3 2.46 ± 0.31 1.46 ± 0.2
23 71 17.79 ± 6.1 9.61 ± 3.3 2.11 ± 0.24 1.98 ± 0.23
25 40 18.46 ± 3.1 10.05 ± 1.6 2.25 ± 0.19 2.39 ± 0.29
27 8 12 ± 3.25 7 ± 1.5 1.73 ± 0.21 3.06 ± 0.47
29 4 9 ± 1.25 5 ± 0.5 1.51 ± 0.1 3.45 ± 0.02
Sorin Pericarbon (stentless bioprosthesis) 23 15 39 ± 13 25 ± 8   2.0
St. Jude Medical (bileaflet) 19 100 35.17 ± 11.16 18.96 ± 6.27 2.86 ± 0.48 1.01 ± 0.24
21 207 28.34 ± 9.94 15.82 ± 5.67 2.63 ± 0.48 1.33 ± 0.32
23 236 25.28 ± 7.89 13.77 ± 5.33 2.57 ± 0.44 1.6 ± 0.43
25 169 22.57 ± 7.68 12.65 ± 5.14 2.4 ± 0.45 1.93 ± 0.45
27 82 19.85 ± 7.55 11.18 ± 4.82 2.24 ± 0.42 2.35 ± 0.59
29 18 17.72 ± 6.42 9.86 ± 2.9 2 ± 0.1 2.81 ± 0.57
31 4 16.0 10 ± 6 2.1 ± 0.6 3.08 ± 1.09
St. Jude Medical Hemodynamic Plus (bileaflet) 19 19 25.81 ± 7.52 16.44 ± 3.57   1.65 ± 0.2
21 30 18.9 ± 7.31 9.62 ± 3.37   2.15 ± 0.29
Starr-Edwards (ball-and-cage) 21 5 29.0     1.0
22 2     4  
23 22 32.6 ± 12.79 21.98 ± 8.8 3.5 ± 0.5 1.1
24 43 34.13 ± 10.33 22.09 ± 7.54 3.35 ± 0.48  
26 29 31.83 ± 9.01 19.69 ± 6.05 3.18 ± 0.35  
27 14 30.82 ± 6.3 18.5 ± 3.7   1.8
29 8 29 ± 9.3 16.3 ± 5.5    
Stentless porcine xenograft (stentless bioprosthesis) 21 3 14 ± 5 8.7 ± 3.5   1.33 ± 0.38
22 3 16 ± 5.6 9.7 ± 3.7   1.32 ± 0.48
23 4 13 ± 4.8 7.7 ± 2.3   1.59 ± 0.6
24 3 13 ± 3.8 7.7 ± 2.2   1.4 ± 0.01
25 6 11.5 ± 7.1 7.4 ± 4.5   2.13 ± 0.7
26 3 10.7 7 ± 2.1   2.15 ± 0.2
27 1 9.2 5.5   3.2
28 1 7.5 4.1   2.3
Toronto stentless, porcine (stentless bioprosthesis) 20 1 10.9 4.6   1.3
21 9 18.64 ± 11.8 7.56 ± 4.4   1.21 ± 0.7
22 1 23.0     1.2
23 84 13.55 ± 7.28 7.08 ± 4.33   1.59 ± 0.84
25 190 12.17 ± 5.75 6.2 ± 3.05   1.62 ± 0.4
27 240 9.96 ± 4.56 4.8 ± 2.33   1.95 ± 0.42
29 200 7.91 ± 4.17 3.94 ± 2.15   2.37 ± 0.67

References

  1. editors, Albert C. Perrino Jr., Scott T. Reeves. A practical approach to transesophageal echocardiography. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008. ISBN:0781773296 [Perrino]