Normal measurements of mitral valve protheses

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Normal Doppler echocardiographic values for mitral valve prosthesis. Adapted from Perrino et al.[1]

Normal Doppler echocardiographic values for mitral valve prosthesis
Valve Size n Peak gradient
(mm Hg)
Mean gradient
(mm Hg)
Peak velocity
(m/s)
Pressure half-time
(ms)
Effective orifice area
(cm2)
Biocor (stentless bioprosthesis) 27 3 13 ± 1        
29 3 14 ± 2.5        
31 8 11.5 ± 0.5        
33 9 12 ± 0.5        
Bioflo pericardial (stented bioprosthesis) 25 3 10 ± 2 6.3 ± 1.5     2 ± 0.1
27 3 9.5 ± 2.6 5.4 ± 1.2     2 ± 0.3
29 8 5 ± 2.8 3.6 ± 1     2.4 ± 0.2
31 1 4.0 2.0     2.3
Björk-Shiley (tilting disk) 23 1     1.7 115  
25 14 12 ± 4 6 ± 2 1.75 ± 0.38 99 ± 27 1.72 ± 0.6
27 34 10 ± 4 5 ± 2 1.6 ± 0.49 89 ± 28 1.81 ± 0.54
29 21 7.83 ± 2.93 2.83 ± 1.27 1.37 ± 0.25 79 ± 17 2.1 ± 0.43
31 21 6 ± 3 2 ± 1.9 1.41 ± 0.26 70 ± 14 2.2 ± 0.3
Björk-Shiley monostrut (tilting disk) 23 1   5.0 1.9    
25 102 13 ± 2.5 5.57 ± 2.3 1.8 ± 0.3    
27 83 12 ± 2.5 4.53 ± 2.2 1.7 ± 0.4    
29 26 13 ± 3 4.26 ± 1.6 1.6 ± 0.3    
31 25 14 ± 4.5 4.9 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 0.3    
Carbomedics (bileaflet) 23 2     1.9 ± 0.1 126 ± 7  
25 12 10.3 ± 2.3 3.6 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.1 93 ± 8 2.9 ± 0.8
27 78 8.79 ± 3.46 3.46 ± 1.03 1.61 ± 0.3 89 ± 20 2.9 ± 0.75
29 46 8.78 ± 2.9 3.39 ± 0.97 1.52 ± 0.3 88 ± 17
31 57 8.87 ± 2.34 3.32 ± 0.87 1.01 ± 0.29 92 ± 24 2.8 ± 1.14
33 33 8.8 ± 2.2 4.8 ± 2.5 1.5 ± 0.2 93 ± 12  
Carpentier-Edwards (stented bioprosthesis) 27 16   6 ± 2 1.7 ± 0.3 98 ± 28  
29 22   4.7 ± 2 1.76 ± 0.27 92 ± 14  
31 22   4.4 ± 2 1.54 ± 0.15 92 ± 19  
33 6   6 ± 3   93 ± 12  
Carpentier-Edwards pericardial(stented bioprosthesis) 27 1   3.6 1.6 100  
29 6   5.25 ± 2.36 1.67 ± 0.3 110 ± 15  
31 4   4.05 ± 0.83 1.53 ± 0.1 90 ± 11  
33 1   1.0 0.8 80  
Duromedics (bileaflet) 27 8 13 ± 6 5 ± 3   75 ± 12  
29 14 10 ± 4 3 ± 1 161 ± 40 85 ± 22  
31 21 10.5 ± 4.37 3.3 ± 1.36 140 ± 25 81 ± 12  
33 1 11.2 2.5 138 ± 27 85  
Hancock I or not specified (stented bioprosthesis) 27 3 10 ± 4 5 ± 2     1.3 ± 0.8
29 13 7 ± 3 2.46 ± 0.79   115 ± 20 1.5 ± 0.2
31 22 4 ± 0.86 4.86 ± 1.69   95 ± 17 1.6 ± 0.2
33 8 3 ± 2 3.87 ± 2   90 ± 12 1.9 ± 0.2
Hancock II (stented bioprosthesis) 27 16         2.21 ± 0.14
29 64         2.77 ± 0.11
31 90         2.84 ± 0.1
33 25         3.15 ± 0.22
Hancock pericardial (stented bioprosthesis) 29 14   2.61 ± 1.39 1.42 ± 0.14 105 ± 36  
31 8   3.57 ± 1.02 1.51 ± 0.27 81 ± 23  
Ionescu-Shiley (stented bioprosthesis) 25 3   4.87 ± 1.08 1.43 ± 0.15 93 ± 11  
27 4   3.21 ± 0.82 1.31 ± 0.24 100 ± 28  
29 6   3.22 ± 0.57 1.38 ± 0.2 85 ± 8  
31 4   3.63 ± 0.9 1.45 ± 0.06 100 ± 36  
Ionescu-Shiley low profile (stented bioprosthesis) 29 13   3.31 ± 0.96 1.36 ± 0.25 80 ± 30  
31 10   2.74 ± 0.37 1.33 ± 0.14 79 ± 15  
Labcor-Santiago pericardial (stented bioprosthesis) 25 1 8.7 4.5   97 2.2
27 16 5.6 ± 2.3 2.8 ± 1.5   85 ± 18 2.12 ± 0.48
29 20 6.2 ± 2.1 3 ± 1.3   80 ± 34 2.11 ± 0.73
Lillehei-Kaster (tilting disk) 18 1     1.7 140  
20 1     1.7 67  
22 4     1.56 ± 0.09 94 ± 22  
25 5     1.38 ± 0.27 124 ± 46  
Medtronic-Hall (tilting disk) 27 1     1.4 78  
29 5     1.57 ± 0.1 69 ± 15  
31 7     1.45 ± 0.12 77 ± 17  
Medtronic Intact, porcine (stented prosthesis) 29 3   3.5 ± 0.51 1.6 ± 0.22    
31 14   4.2 ± 1.44 1.6 ± 0.26    
33 13   4 ± 1.3 1.4 ± 0.24    
35 2   3.2 ± 1.77 1.3 ± 0.5    
Mitroflow (stented bioprosthesis) 25 1   6.9 2.0 90  
27 3   3.07 ± 0.91 1.5 90 ± 20  
29 15   3.5 ± 1.65 1.43 ± 0.29 102 ± 21  
31 5   3.85 ± 0.81 1.32 ± 0.26 91 ± 22  
Omnicarbon (tilting disk) 23 1   8.0      
25 16   6.05 ± 1.81 1.77 ± 0.24 102 ± 16  
27 29   4.89 ± 2.05 1.63 ± 0.36 105 ± 33  
29 34   4.93 ± 2.16 1.56 ± 0.27 120 ± 40  
31 58   4.18 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 0.23 134 ± 31  
33 2   4 ± 2      
On-X (bileaflet) 25 3 11.5 ± 3.2 5.3 ± 2.1     1.9 ± 1.1
27–29 16 10.3 ± 4.5 4.5 ± 1.6     2.2 ± 0.5
31–33 14 9.8 ± 3.8 4.8 ± 2.4     2.5 ± 1.1
Sorin Allcarbon (tilting disk) 25 8 15 ± 3 5 ± 1 2 ± 0.2 105 ± 29 2.2 ± 0.6
27 20 13 ± 2 4 ± 1 1.8 ± 0.1 89 ± 14 2.5 ± 0.5
29 34 10 ± 2 4 ± 1 1.6 ± 0.2 85 ± 23 2.8 ± 0.7
31 11 9 ± 1 4 ± 1 1.6 ± 0.1 88 ± 27 2.8 ± 0.9
Sorin Bicarbon (bileaflet) 25 3 15 ± 0.25 4 ± 0.5 1.95 ± 0.02 70 ± 1  
27 25 11 ± 2.75 4 ± 0.5 1.65 ± 0.21 82 ± 20  
29 30 12 ± 3 4 ± 1.25 1.73 ± 0.22 80 ± 14  
31 9 10 ± 1.5 4 ± 1 1.66 ± 0.11 83 ± 14  
St. Jude Medical (bileaflet) 23 1   4.0 1.5 160 1.0
25 4   2.5 ± 1 1.34 ± 1.12 75 ± 4 1.35 ± 0.17
27 16 11 ± 4 5 ± 1.82 1.61 ± 0.29 75 ± 10 1.67 ± 0.17
29 40 10 ± 3 4.15 ± 1.8 1.57 ± 0.29 85 ± 10 1.75 ± 0.24
31 41 12 ± 6 4.46 ± 2.22 1.59 ± 0.33 74 ± 13 2.03 ± 0.32
Starr-Edwards (ball-and-cage) 26 1   10.0     1.4
28 27   7 ± 2.75     1.9 ± 0.57
30 25 12.2 ± 4.6 6.99 ± 2.5 1.7 ± 0.3 125 ± 25 1.65 ± 0.4
32 17 11.5 ± 4.2 5.08 ± 2.5 1.7 ± 0.3 110 ± 25 1.95 ± 0.4
34 1   5.0     2.6
Stentless quadrileaflet bovine pericardial (stentless bioprosthesis) 26 2   2.2 ± 1.7 1.6 103 ± 31 1.7
28 14     1.58 ± 0.25   1.7 ± 0.6
30 6     1.42 ± 0.32   2.3 ± 0.4
Wessex (stented bioprosthesis) 29 9   3.69 ± 0.61 1.66 ± 0.17 83 ± 19  
31 22   3.31 ± 0.83 1.41 ± 0.25 80 ± 21  

References

  1. editors, Albert C. Perrino Jr., Scott T. Reeves. A practical approach to transesophageal echocardiography. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008. ISBN:0781773296 [Perrino]