Mitral stenosis is the most common mitral valve lesion that causes inflow obstruction. This is commonly the result of rheumatic heart disease, severe mitral annular calcification, left atrial myxoma and other tumors, congenital disorders, and left-sided carcinoid heart disease.
In mitral stenosis, the normal, biphasic, and rapid motion of the mitral valve is altered because it opens only partly and as a single unit. The posterior leaflet becomes immobile and the anterior mitral leaflet tethering results in a “hockey stick” appearance. These changes obstructs the blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle.
Echocardiography can identify the presence of mitral stenosis and determine its severity accurately. The findings can help cardiologist make reliable decisions about the need for surgery or the suitability for catheter-based balloon valvotomy.